Tribes of Himachal- Kinner/kinnauri

Tribes of Himachal- Kinner/kinnauri

LANGUAGE-

They speak Kinnauri which comes under Himalayan group for Tibeto-Burman, family languages Bhoti is also spoken in upper kinnaur

HISTORY

-According to a legend they have sprung from the toe of Brahma along with Yakshas In Mahabharata they have been grouped with the Gandharvas

-while in Matsya-purana‘, their kinship with Kirata and the Yakshasa,

REFERENCE
– Kinners find mention not only in Hindu books, but also in Jain and Budhist scripts –Jains religious books after a classification of “neun dev Yoni in which one category is that of Kinners
-In Vayu Purana they are said to be inhabitant of “Mahand Mountains

DIFFERENT NAMES

Kinnaur is called
khunu by Tibetans
-In Leh are they are called as Maon

The five Pandavas brother are said to have spent 12 years of exile in Kinnaur.

DIVISION-

In general Kinnauras have the broad categories  KHASIA AND BERU

BERU –
Beru is further divided into Domang and Chamang

THE KHASIAS –

The khasias or rajputs have three status groups  Orang, Morang and Waza.

-When ceremonial friendship occurs between a man and a woman it is called Jokheya  and when it occurs between two women it is called konech

OCCUPATION

-Trade and sheep rearing under the shingmo or hala system.

-Agriculture- The koli cultivated the land and does all agricultural work of Rajput in return he gets a fixed amount of cereals.

-THE JAJMANI SYSTEM among them is known as bianana system.
-It is the system of mutual cooperation between the Rajput and koli, lohar,
-Besides bianana, bhoara and mokomokheyasimig Systems also coexist, in which under the farmer all related persons are invited for economic pursuits and social affairs

MARRIAGE SYSTEM

1.DAROSH OR DUBUR OR NYAMSHA DEPANG OR NYAMSHA LEMO OR ASHISH HUCHIS  –
-It is marriage by force

In Tibot darosh type of marriage is called or Namkuza and Janekang is known as Namaroza

2. DAM CHALSHISH OR BENANG HACHHIS OR DAMTANG SHISH OR JUSHISH-
-It is a type of love marriage

3.JANEKANG OR JANETANG
-It is a type of Common mariage

4.NYOTANG MERANG-
It is a form of marriage in which only two persons go in marriage party. It is followed by poor families

SENING KUNNU-
-It is ritual of exchanging gifts in marriage.

The eldest married women of family is called Goins means mistress of house. she is in control of household and treasure of the family. The eldest man is known as Gotres (master)

DIVORCE-
-SHING-TAG-TAG
– Husband & wife hold a dry 20-to-25 cm long twigof shur tree in their right hand. They break it with jerk and broken pieces are thrown backway. This ritual is known as Shing Tag Tag also called Shingtickashimig or thag chocha.  

INHERITANCE LAW
-Property is inherited according to Jathong(eldest) and kanchhong(youngest) rules.

BIRTH AND DEATH CEREMONY

-Tonglong is last wish of a dying man.
– In Ropa valley all families blessed with son offer one goat collectively to village diety on Ukahyang festival.

DEATH RITUALS-
TYPES-
1.Dubant -drowning of the body
2.Phukant -burning of the body
3. Bhakhant -eating of body by vultures and birds etc.

In Hangrang valley particularly the lama recited ‘PHOA narration whispered in the ear of the dead body

One of  the doors are rends in big vessel caled as Lam Kunyal A white hare known as OM KAFRA held by two persons or lamais taken to the cremation ground.

THUNING-
In the same evening Family members throw a mixed pudding prepared form loaves and pulses on the roofs of their house, under the belief that through crows and other birds food would reach the departe soul this act is known as thuning

DRESSES
1.DHORI-Dhori is the type of woolen sari, 2.CHOLI -is akin to full sleeved blouse
3.RA GHOYA -type of ordinary shirt,
4. GOLAK OR GHOYE OR YANGLUCK OR LIGCH -woolen shawl
5.KERA -woolen rope
6. SHEW -cap
7.THEPANG popularly known as himachali cap

RELIGION-

-People embracing budhism belongs to Nyingmapa, Dukpa Kagyugpa Gelug pa sects

KINSHU & DEITIES-
Kinshu is the house hold deity and Ghori is village diety.
-The major deities are Maheshwar. Chandrika, Badrinarayan and Dabla
-While kinshu is worshiped in the comer of a room of every household other deities have their place in sathong ( Temple premises) -There are 18 major deities of Kinnaur who are said to be the progeny of Banasur and Hidimba.

They believe in spints Bhakharashuna, Banchis, chous, khunkch who reside in high altitude forests,deodar and kail trees, particular stones on a way and in cowshed respectively.

Churail the spirit of pregnant women is warded off by wearing amulets and charms

THATHA
Thatha ceremony is held every two to five years to ward off evil spirits.

FAIR AND FESTIVALS
– Ukhyang, Phaguli, Dakreni, Deewal losar, Mahang, Sango, Khepa, chota Deewal shikrem,, Zalma, Lama zulka, Eratang Peetang Puja, Chhayang Kulma,  Toshim or toshig etc

COMMUNITY COUNCIL-

CHAR BHAI-
-For maintaining law and order the kinners have traditional council called”Char Bhai” which consists of char, halMandi and to-kniya besides a mukhya.
-The post of mukhiya and char always belong to Rajput, whereas that of halman and to to kiniya is filled by lower caste

Woman never becomes member of charbhai.

PUNISHMENTS

– Tiching michig –
It means to outcaste .it is awarded if one violates devta’s direction.getting married to forbidden family, grabbing someone’s property.

-Chhepta
It is Awarded for not coming to deity’s shrine or for coming late when summoned by the deity.

-Ti Darang(pirang) shisha
It is an exemplary punishment awarded to an incorrigible errant. in presence of all shower of cold water is thrown on culprit, amd all prays for his down fall at all levels.

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