TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH

TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH

The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities in India and same was the result of Different temple architecture in Himachal pradesh.

 

SHIKHAR STYLE

-They are mountain like the spire of a free-standing temple. 

-The top of the shikhar has amalaka, the
circular sun-disc.

-Shikhara is found in North Indian temples and Vimana is found in South Indian temples.

-Shikhara Sanskrit word translating literally to “mountain peak”, refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India, and also
often used in Jain temples.

-Shikhara has a curving shape while vimana has a pyramidal-like structure.

Temples :

  • Lord Vaidyanath’s temple at Baijnath (Kangra) 
  • The Luxmi Narayan Group of temples at Chamba are fine examples of this style.
TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH
                       Baijnath Temple

-J.P. Vogel and others have delved deep on ‘the most famous stone temple at Bajaura’ as an exquisite specimen of shikhar style.
-The solitary instance of rock-cut architecture reminding one of the thought-provoking remnant of Gupta-influenced ‘classical’ art that thrived in the hills is the Thakurwada at Masrur (Kangra). It has been called the earliest specimen of Shikhar design in the Himalayas.

 

PENT ROOFED-

The pent-roofed temples are indigenously styled circular or rectangular structures with slanting roofs made of rows and rows
of slates, designed, in keeping with the climatic conditions of the region, to keep heavy rainfall and snowfall from covering these structures for more than short intervals.

The roof extends over the covered ‘veranda’ which serves the purpose of Pradakshina round the shrine
An interesting feature very
specific to these hill temples is the peculiar arrangement of wood and stone in building the walls.
Wooden beams are laid at right angles of the walls, and intervening spaces are filled up with stone which holds itself quite
beautifully protecting the inmates from harsh climatic conditions.

Temples :

  • BijliMahadev (Kullu)
  • Lakshana Devi at Bharmour (Chamba),
  • Shakti Devi at Chatrari (Chamba)
  •  Hatkoti (Shimla) are a few examples of this type of architecture. It is the most common form in the hills.
TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH
               Lakshana devi Temple(pent roofed)

PAGODA STYLE

pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves

-These type of Temple have tiered tower with multiple leaves, 
– Its origin can be traced as Stupa in historic South Asia and further developed in East Asia or

-It is common to Nepal, China, Japan,Korea,Vietnam,Myanmar,India, Sri
Lanka Nepal and other parts of Asia.

-These are rectangular stone and wood structure with successive roofs, placed one over another making them in some case look like multi-storey edificies.

Pagoda style of temple architecture in H.P. is inherited from Nepal

Temples:

  • Prashar temple (Mandi)
  • Hadimba temple in Manali (Kullu)
  • Tripura Sundari temple at Nagar (Kullu)
  • TriyugiNaryan temple at Dyar (Kullu)
  • Adi Brahma temple at Khokhan (Kullu)
  • Manu temple at Shanshar (Kullu)
  • Maheshwar temple at Sungra (Kinnaur)
  • Chagoann temple (Kinnaur)
TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH
Hadimba devi temple

DOME TEMPLES 

This type of Structure have hollow upper half of a sphere.
Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory 

-In past use of  mud, stone, wood, brick, concrete, metal, 8 and plastic can be seen in these structures

-The symbolism associated with domes includes morte celestial, and governmental traditions that have like
developed over time.

-This style is the direct outcome of the Mughal and the Sikh rule.

-The shrines built in the 18th and 19th centuries by the local rulers are representing the domed style.

Temples:

  • Jwalamukhi (Kangra)
  • Bajreshwari (Kangra)
  • Chintpurni(Una)
  • Naina Devi (Bilaspur)

 

FLAT ROOFED STYLE

A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of
sloped roofs

Flat roofs are an ancient form mostly used in arid climates and allow the roof space to be used as a living space or a living roof.

In this category shrines have ordinary walls in mud and lime plaster and the remarkable paintings executed in the traditional pahari style around the Ramayana and Mahabharta.  

Temples 

  • Narbadeshwar at SujanpurTira(Hamirpur)
  • Ramgopal temple at Damtal (Kangra).