Yamuna System in Himachal Pradesh includes the eastern most
rivers of the Yamuna and their tributaries.
–The drainage network of the river Yamuna is spread over 10% area of Himachal Pradesh, and it falls under the Ganga- Yamuna river system
-River is the eastern-most river of Himachal Pradesh has mythical relation
to the Sun.
ORIGIN-The river Yamuna has its source in the Yamunotri glacier on the Bander-Punch peak in the Uttrakhand state.
-It enters Himachal Pradesh at Khodar Majri in Sirmaur district and makes 22 kms boundary with the state of Uttrakhand.
–Its catchment area in Himachal Pradesh is 5,872sq kms which accounts to be 10.6% among all the rivers.
-It leaves the territory of Himachal Pradesh near Tajewala headworks and enters the Yamuna nagar
district of the Haryana ștate. The Tons, Pabbar and Giri-Bata are its important tributaries.
1. PRINCIPAL TRIBUTARIES OF THE YAMUNA
– the Tons, Pabbar Giri and Bata.
THEIR SPATIAL ANALYSIS AS FOLLOWS:
A. ANDHRA RIVER
– is also tributary of the Pabbar River which in turn drains into the Tons River.
-This river rises from a small glaciated cirque on mountain ranges in the north-west of Chirgaon in Shimla district.
-From here, it flows in a general direction towards South-East
and merges with the Pabbar River at Chirgaon on which Andhra Hydel project is coming up
B. PATSARI RIVER
–is a small spring fed and is the tributary of the Pabbar river.
–It rises from the
Kharapathar mountain slopes in the Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh
– It joins the Pabbar
River near Patsari about 10 kms upstream of Rohru town.
C. PABBAR RIVER
-is a tributary of the Tons River, which in turn drains into the river Yamuna.
This rises from the south facing slopes of the Dhauladhar range near the border of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh in the extreme North-Eastern part of Shimla district.
–The Pabbar River is fed by the Chandra Nahan glacier and springs originating from the
– It joins the Tons River at the base of the Chakrata massif near the
border of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
D. TONS RIVER
-is an important tributary of the Yamuna river and joins it at Kalsi in the
North-western part of Dehradun
-It rises from the two feeder streams- THE SUPIN RIVER rises from in the Northern part of the Tons catchment near the Himachal Pradesh
whereas THE RUPIN RIVERr rises from a glacier at the head of the famous Har-Ki-Dun
valley in the North Eastern part of the Tons catchment in Uttrakhand border.
E. GIRI RIVER
– is an important tributary of the Yamuna River.
– It drains into a part of
south-eastern Himachal Pradesh.
–The Giri or Giri Ganga as it is famous in the Jubbal, and
Rohru mountain ranges and rises from Kupar peak just above the Jubbal town.
–the Giri River divides the Sirmaur district into equal parts that
are known as Cis-Giri and Trans-Giri region.
– It joins Yamuna upstream of Paonta below Mokkampur.
– The Ashwnikhad joins Giri near Sadhupul ( Chail)
–while RIVER JALAL WHICH
ORIGINATES FROM DHARTHI SAIN DHAR RANGES adjoining Pachhad joins it at Dadahu from the right side.
-The water from the Giri River is led through a tunnel to the power house of
Girinagar and after that it is led into the Bata River..
F. BATA RIVER
-originates in the boulders below the Nahan ridge in the south-western corner of Himachal Pradesh as the Jalmusa-Ka-Khala
-It is mainly fed by the rain water that is cycled as underground water before finally coming up on the surface as a spring.
– Large and wide terraces have been formed all along its course.
– The small tributaries which join the Bata River in the Paonta valley are Khara-Ka-Khala flowing in a
Southerly direction from the Nahan ridge, and Kamser-ka- Khala originating from the southern slopes of the nahan Known as Kamser Ridge.
G. ASWANI RIVER
-it is a tributary of the Giri River. This river flows along a deep v shaped valley whose side vary from steep to precipitous slopes . It has carved a steep gorge across the off-shoots of the Nag Tibba ridge Numerous small spring fed tributaries join the Ashwani
River at various places along its course.
H. JALAL RIVER
–is the small tributary of the Giri river. It rises from Dharti- Sain Dhar ranges
adjoining Pachhad. It joins the river Giri at Dadahu from the right side.
I. MARKANDA RIVER
– rises from the southern face of the lower Himalayas on the western most
point of the Kiarda dun or Paonta valley. The lower Himalayas of the Nahan lie on the right flank of the Markanda valley while the low rolling Shiwalik hills are situated on its left
2. PRINCIPAL VALLEYS OF THE YAMUNA BASIN
– Rohru, Pabbar, and Kiarada dun as
A. THE VALLEY OF ROHRU
– lies in its upper course and is drained, by river Tons. It is about 24
kilometers long and 2 kilometers broad. It is a tectonic depression lying between the offshoots of Dhauladhar range and Nag Tibba ranges.
B. PABBAR VALLEY
-is formed by the catchment area of the Pabbar River in the Rohru area of
Shimla district known as Rohru valley. Chanshal peak is looking conspicuous lying at an altitude of 3912 m from the Pabbar valley. The entire valley has greater coverage of
the orchards of the apples which is main cash crop of the valley followed by seed-potatoes.
–During 1938-39, the Glover was the British chief Conservator of forests Punjab introduced TROUT FISH farming in Pabbar river and Andhra stream near Gashwani village but it couldn’t be developed. However, this valley holds a good potential for trout fishing in the
days to come.
C. KAIRDADUN VALLEY
–lies in Paonta- sahib tehsil of Sirmaur district. It is surrounded by the
Shiwaliks hills on the north-west and south-west, Yamuna River in the east and thick forest cover in the north. The Giri and Yamuna River has developed this valley. The shape of the
valley is triangular as it is wider in the middle and narrower down towards the corners.
3. HYDRO-ELECTRIC PROJECTS : Dhamwari Sundra, Sabra-Kuddu Giri-Bata and Andhra are the
important hydro-electric projects of the Yamuna river basin.
4. MAJOR TOWNS OF THE YAMUNA BASIN are
-Rohru, Hatkoti, Jubbal, Kotkhai, Nahan,
Paonta, Chail, Nerawa, Solan, Parwanoo, Tiuni, Naitwar, Giri nagar, etc.