MARRIAGE SYSTEM IN HIMACHAL PRADESH

MARRIAGE SYSTEM IN HIMACHAL PRADESH

Marriage is an important ceremony in Himachal Pradesh. The parents and elders begin to look around for suitable matches.

“Roovary/ Dhamu/ Mazomi /Rivara”

    -Some time a middle man i used as a match maker, known variously as “Roovary”, “Dhamu”, or Mazomi and “Rivara”

The first step in a marriage ceremony is Betrothal. When the match of
boy (by matching Kundli’s in almost Himachal except some tribal area)
and girl is settled, the ritual gift Tika is sent.

TWO KIND OF BETHROTHAL ARE IN PRACTICE

BARNI-
Observed mostly in upper classes

SAGAI OR SOTHA
– Adopted by folks of middle class and low class.On behalf of boys father a priest or a relative takes a few ornaments and a ruppee or two to the girls
parents. This offering is called Sotha.

BANDHA DENA & BARINA
In Chamba the  Sagai or Sotha system is known as  Bandha Dena and
remote part of Mandi it is known as Barina.

BATTA-SATTA

The other system of bethrothal is called as “Batta-Satta”(this is the
exchange system)

-In Batta-Satta a man getting a wife in return for a sister or cousin given away in marriage to wife’s brother or cousin. In tribal area both the parties exchange Chhang (rice-wine) and close relatives are invited to participate in ceremony.

CHHARMI NATTA

In Kinnaur during various festival gifts of jewellary and clothes are sent
to bethrothed known as ‘Chharmi Natta’.
Religion has predominant place in marriage ceremony. Date of marriage
deities is also sought is set in consultation with priest and in some places the permission of Marriage rule in hills are not very definite or strict as in plains.

TYPES OF MARRIAGES IN HIMACHAL

1.Polyandry
– This type of marriage mostly prevalent in Chamba interior parts, Kinnaur, Lahaul-Spiti.
In this system the elder of brothers marries and women became the common wife of all the brothers known as fraternal
polyandry.
In favor of this practice they say:
1. It is inherited from pandvas.
2. It is ligacy of original tribal culture of area.
3. Ensures non fragmentation of large land holdings.

2.Polygamy
A man marrying more than one woman at a time but in Himachal vast majority of people follows the practice of monogamy.

3. Love marriage

Now days love marriage culture is
prevalent almost in all Himachal but higher caste are still against it.

4.Reet Marriage

 Which take place when an already married woman wants to leave her husband and marry another man. The husband charges reet moneyfrom the husband-to-be and allow his to go with
man of her choice.

MARRIAGE CEREMONY PRACTICES TYPE:

In Himachal Pradesh marriage ceremony practices in different forms namely:
1.Biah
regular marriage in accordance to ‘Shastras’.
This form of marriage termed as Brahmo marriage.This is the superior form of marriage and largely practiced in
Himachal Pradesh.

2.Jhanjhrara and Gadhar or Paraina: Designate informal marriages among tribals of Himachal pradesh

3.Jhindphook
In this no religious ceremony is performed like seven steps by the bride and groom jointly round the consecrated fire.
These are mainly popular among low caste people.

4. Jarar Phuki
Peculiar form of marriage among tribes of
Marriage is take place without approval of parents.The man and women set fire to some bush wood in jungle and
walk around it seven times and hand in hand which completes marriage.

5.Darosh or Dab Dhab
It is tribal system prevalent in Kinnaur.
In this a girl is forcibly dragged away from a fair ground of a festival meeting after this the boy’s father went to girls father and seek their apology of outrage committed by his son. Then they ask them (boy’s father) to make amend in term of money is called as ‘Izzat‘ paid then and there. Within month after this settlement the boy along with his relative and two women escort the girl back to her house.
After few days she is brought back to her in law either by father or brother or on this occasion she is presented with ornaments,utensils and clothes by her parents.

6.Dam-Chalshish

In this type of marriage the lover elope together and boy’s father sends the Mazomi (Match maker) to girls house and tries to bring them around by presenting some gifts. They agree and ritual of marriage is followed.

7.Hari or Har
In Kinnaur area it is known as Dubdub or Kuchis or Khutu Kima.
When a boy kidnaps a girl or girl elopes with her fiancé it is called Har.
In this dispute is settled by paying some amount to girl’s family.
Har is considered illegal in higher castes.

In case of Gaddis they perform the marriage ceremony twice first come the Jooth Pana.

When the groom’s party goes to girl’s house and breaks a lump of Jaggery in girls name and girl’s family smears them with red color Then after 5 or 10 days real marriage took place.
There is no system of veil or dowry among Gaddis.
In Gaddis when widow leaves her husband house and moves in with someone else she is known as ‘Ghar Karna’.

Other Customs related Marriage is

-In lower areas of state customs like ‘Samuhal‘, ‘Shanti‘, ‘Lagna‘,
Vedika‘, ‘Vida‘, ‘Andaron‘ (entry of bride into her new household) are
commonly followed.

-The Feroni (the ritual return of bride after her first visit from her father’s
house) ceremony is of great joy and happiness.
-“Milni‘ is performed when wedding party is reached in brides home. In this major relatively perform Milni of both the families like mama’s of girl side and boy side hugs each other etc. commonly prevailed in lower
Himachal