✓Topographically, the territory of Himachal Pradesh from South to North can be divided into following zones:

1. The Lower Hills or Outer Himalayan Zone 350 m (1,150 ft) to 1,500 m (4,920 ft).

✓This part of the western Himalayas which viels the state of Himachal Pradesh from the plains along its Southern boundary, is known as the Shivalik Hills.
✓Shivalik literally means the ‘Tresses of Shiva’ and to the ancient geographers Shivalik Hills were known as the ‘Mainak Parvat’.
✓The hills of the region are composed of highly unconsolidated deposits which results in a high rate of erosion and deforestation.
✓The annual rainfall in this zone varies from 1500mm to

✓This area is suitable for the cultivation of maize, wheat, paddy. sugarcane, ginger, potatoes and citrus fruits.
✓The Shivalik range extends from the river Ravi to Yamuna.
✓These hills comprises the districts of Bilaspur, Hamirpur, Kangra & Una and lower parts of the Mandi, Sirmour Shimla & Solan districts.
Hathidhar, the highest (5,256) mountain range in the Shivalik Hills, forms a natural boundary between Kangra and Chamba districts.

2) The Lesser or Inner Himalayas or the Mid-Himalayan Zone- 1,500 m (4,920 ft.) – 4,500 m (14,765 ft.).

✓This zone occupies the central part of Himachal Pradesh.
✓Most of this zone is composed of granite and other crystalline rocks of unfossiliferous sediments.
✓In this zone falls the upper areas of the tehsils of Pachhad and Renuka in District Sirmour, Chachyot and Karsog tehsils of District Mandi; upper parts of Kangra and Palampur tehsils of District Kangra; upper Shimla Hills and upper parts of the Churah tehsil of District Chamba.
✓This zone comprises two mountain ranges viz. Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal.

A) Dhauladhar Mountain Range- 4,550 m (14,927 ft.)
✓Dhauladhar,which means the “Grayish White”, is the outermost portion of the Lesser Himalayas.
✓It branches off from the Great Himalayan range near Badrinath in Uttrakhand.
✓Dhauladhar is also known as ‘Maulak Parvat’ and it lies mainly in the Kangra district.
✓It is intercepted by the Sutlej at Rampur Bushahr (District Shimla), by the Beas at Larji (District Kullu) and by Ravi in South-West of Chamba.
Kangra valley is a longitudinal trough at the foot of this range.
✓In Chamba district it forms the Southern boundary of the district and separates it from Kangra district.
✓Dhauladhar range in Kinnaur district constitutes the South-Western part of the district and forms a longitudinal belt along the boundary line between Kinnaur and Shimla, and Uttrakhand in its South.

B) Pir Panjal Mountain Range – 4,000 m (13,123 ft)-5,000 m (16,404 ft)
Pir Panjal range which falls mainly in District Chamba is the largest and most impressive range in the Lesser or Inner Himalayas.
✓lt bifurcates from the Great Himalayan range near the bank of the river Sutlej forming the water-parting between the river Chenab on the one side and the Beas & Ravi rivers on the other.
It separates Kullu valley from Lahaul valley.
It merges with Shrikhand, a mid Himalayan range to the East of

3. The Greater Himalayas or Alpine Zone – 4,500 m( 14,765 ft) – 7,000 m (22,965 ft)

✓The Greater Himalayan range runs along the eastern boundary of the State and is cut across by the river Sutlej.
✓The range separates the drainage of river Spiti from that of the Beas.
✓ This towering range acts as a barrier to the South-West monsoons, thereby depriving the area lying to the North (Pooh, Spiti), of monsoon rain.
✓The famous Zaskar range of this zone is the easternmost range and separates the Kinnaur and Spiti from Tibet,Kashmir and Laddhakh.
Shilla (7026m )the highest mountain peak in the State lies in the Zaskar range in Kinnaur district.
✓In this zone falls the District Kinnaur, Pangi tehsil of District Chamba and some areas of District Lahaul-Spiti.